2013 National Transgender Health Summit

Combining the expertise of the Center of Excellence for Transgender Health and the World Professional Association for Transgender Health, the National Transgender Health Summit will provide an exceptional educational forum for disseminating cutting edge research and increasing clinical skills among health care professionals of all backgrounds.

We invite health care providers, health and human service professionals, mental health professionals, health administrators, researchers, students and advocates to attend this groundbreaking Summit. Programming will include plenary sessions by world-renowned experts in the field of transgender health care, training tracks for medical and mental health care providers interested in building their skills for working with transgender patients and clients, a research track for the dissemination of cutting edge developments in the field of transgender health, and a transgender health policy institute.

 

In the past three months two of my friends passed away. Both of them were trans women of color. Both of them had lung related conditions. Neither one of them had regular medical care to manage their conditions nor reliable health support systems. It is evident that transgender people experience health disparities due to various reasons including lack of access to quality health care and fear of accessing care due to previous negative experiences. The 2013 National Transgender Health Summit provides exceptional learning opportunities for clinicians and health care professionals to better address transgender health care issues among others. The summit will be held on May 17-18, 2013 in Oakland, CA. Please visit (http://transhealth.ucsf.edu/trans?page=ev-summit2-program) to register and learn more about the summit.

-Jordan Blaza

Enhanced HIV/AIDS Information on AIDS.gov

 

Reblogged from blog.aids.gov

 

 

As part of our continuing efforts to pursue the National HIV/AIDS Strategy’s (NHAS) call for a more coordinated response to the epidemic in the United States, Federal agencies recently completed a review and update to the HIV/AIDS information available onBenefits.gov.

The mission of Benefits.gov is to reduce the expense and difficulty of interacting with the government while increasing citizen access to government benefit information. The site’s core function is the eligibility prescreening questionnaire or “Benefit Finder.” Answers to the questionnaire are used to evaluate a visitor’s situation and compare it with the eligibility criteria for more than 1,000 federally-funded benefit and assistance programs. Each program description provides citizens with the next steps to apply for benefit programs of interest. Benefits.gov is a collaborative effort of 17 Federal agencies, and is managed by the Department of Labor. The site has been visited more than 50 million times and more than 11.2 million citizens have been referred to agency benefit programs. Users include the general public, persons seeking benefits for themselves, health care providers, case managers, state and local health departments, Federal government policymakers, program developers, and advocacy groups, among others.

After a review last summer of the HIV-related programs featured on Benefits.gov, we conferred with the site’s administrators and identified several enhancements that could be made to better serve users seeking information about HIV-related services and benefits. We then worked with the NHAS Federal Leads Work Group—composed of representatives from the Departments of Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Justice, Labor, and Veterans Affairs as well as the Social Security Administration—to compile information about seven additional programs to be added to the site. Short narratives highlighting the nine benefit programs, including six from HUD and three from DOL, are now part of the Benefits.gov database.

In addition, Benefits.gov created an HIV/AIDS benefits page to list these and other relevant benefits available to people living with, at risk for, and/or affected by HIV/AIDS. This information is available in English and Spanish.

Benefits.gov also now includes several HIV-specific questions in the online pre-screening tool to assess individual eligibility and more effectively direct users to locate appropriate programs. Finally, Benefits.gov also has added the AIDS.gov HIV Testing and Care Services locatorwidget to several pages, which will also help visitors identify nearby services.

“By ensuring that Benefits.gov features the full range of Federal benefits and services for people living with HIV/AIDS, we hope to facilitate improved access to this information and the available benefits and services to a broader population,” said Dr. Ronald Valdiserri, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health, Infectious Diseases. Dr. Valdiserri also noted that these efforts will be bolstered by the outreach Benefits.gov concentrates on several key populations including low income individuals and families, caseworkers serving at-risk populations, Veterans, and students and educators.

Editor’s note: Dr. Kosub was on detail to OHAIDP when this work was conducted.

Prevention and Treatment of HIV Infection in Infants Born to Infected Mothers: Need for a Fresh Look

Reposted from the Office of National AIDS Policy

 

On Monday, March 4, 2013, at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Atlanta, Dr. Deborah Persaud of the Johns Hopkins University presented an intriguing case study of a child who by all measures seems to be cured of HIV infection. This single case has sparked significant conversation, debate, and optimism. There are important questions that have naturally arisen from this case and we hope to examine some of the aspects of the research agenda that now need to be pursued. While this is an exciting case, we want to stress that it remains very important for people living with HIV/AIDS to continue their medications and to see their healthcare providers on a regular basis.

Certain of the facts are clear. An infant was born at a hospital in Mississippi to a woman unaware she was infected with HIV until she was already in labor. Having been born somewhat prematurely, the child was transferred to the University of Mississippi Medical Center, where the baby came under the experienced and skilled care of pediatrician Dr. Hannah Gay. Knowing that the mother was not previously treated for HIV infection (which put the infant at a high risk of becoming infected), Dr. Gay proceeded under the assumption that the infant had become infected. She started the infant on a three-drug cocktail of antiretroviral medications for HIV treatment, as opposed to the standard two-drug regimen for prophylaxis (prevention) of infection. Blood samples from the infant were repeatedly drawn, and lab results confirmed that the baby indeed had a detectable level of virus. Over the course of several weeks of treatment with antiretroviral drugs, the amount of virus in the child’s blood declined to undetectable levels. The child was discharged from the hospital on antiretroviral therapy that continued for up to 18 months, at which point the mother and child interrupted their medical care. Fast forward several months: the child reappeared in care after a significant lapse in antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly, the child had no detectable circulating virus, no detectable anti-HIV antibodies, and was clinically healthy. Dr. Gay then reached out to Dr. Persaud and Dr. Katherine Luzuriaga of the University of Massachusetts to perform laboratory studies to help understand what had happened with this toddler.

Several aspects of how this case was dealt with stand out. First, the potential importance of this case was recognized immediately and some of the best laboratories in the world were brought in to help validate the laboratory data. Investigators with long-standing working relationships, some established a decade or more ago, collaborated on state-of-the-art analyses of specimens. The results from all the laboratory studies confirmed that there was no ongoing HIV replication in this child; all that apparently remained was miniscule snippets of viral material.

This case study has touched off vigorous discussions, with both agreements and disagreements about key questions — a healthy and important part of the scientific process. For example, questions have arisen whether the child was ever truly infected in the first place, or was the virus detected in the blood stream of the infant soon after birth actually virus that was passed from the mother during pregnancy or during birth? Was the observed result due to the early treatment within 30 hours of birth, or was there something important about the intensity of the antiretroviral treatment or even some characteristic of the infant’s immature immune system?

It is essential that critically important questions are raised and ultimately addressed. This is a report of a single case, and as scientists, our goal is to confirm or refute research findings, and through this process, we also seek to fill in the missing details. There are several immediately obvious lines of research that will be pursued. First, we will work to better understand the relationship and/or difference between the virus passed to an infant from the mother and the virus produced by an infant’s infected cells during the early hours and days following exposure. Second, assuming that the immediate treatment of infants at high risk for infection could result in a possible “cure” of a truly infected infant, the risk-to-benefit ratio of starting very early 3-drug treatment (rather than 2-drug prophylaxis) for babies born under such conditions is now altered and must be discussed and possibly reconsidered. In addition, studies need to be designed and implemented to investigate the questions of timing and duration of pediatric antiretroviral treatment. In this regard, we need to examine existing cohorts of children who years ago were truly infected (or were assumed to be infected) and were treated not within hours of detection of virus but within weeks to months to determine if such cases had similar outcomes to the Mississippi child and can shed light on the timing and intensity of starting therapy. To this end, the team led by Drs. Persaud and Luzuriaga presented information at CROI on five additional children who had been perinatally infected and started antiretroviral therapy at a median of 2 months after birth. Encouragingly, in these children long-term control of HIV replication following early antiretroviral treatment has resulted in extremely low levels of virus and diminished anti-HIV immune responses.

Of course, as part of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, as we move forward with our research agenda we must engage in serious discussions on the criteria, risks and ethics involved in all our studies, including the idea of stopping antiretroviral therapy in individuals who may be “cured. As physicians and scientists, we must first do no harm as we seek ways to improve the health of the nation and world through biomedical research.

Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. is the Director, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health.

Carl W. Dieffenbach, Ph.D., is the Director of the Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH).

Toddler ‘Functionally Cured’ of HIV Infection, NIH-Supported Investigators Report

 

Cross-posted from NIH/NIAIAD News Release

 

Discovery Provides Clues for Potentially Eliminating HIV Infection in Other Children

 

A two-year-old child born with HIV infection and treated with antiretroviral drugs beginning in the first days of life no longer has detectable levels of virus using conventional testing despite not taking HIV medication for 10 months, according to findings presented today at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Atlanta.

This is the first well-documented case of an HIV-infected child who appears to have been functionally cured of HIV infection—that is, without detectable levels of virus and no signs of disease in the absence of antiretroviral therapy.

Further research is needed to understand whether the experience of the child can be replicated in clinical trials involving other HIV-exposed children, according to the investigators.

The case study was presented at the CROI meeting by Deborah Persaud, M.D., associate professor of infectious diseases at the Johns Hopkins Children’s Center in Baltimore, and Katherine Luzuriaga, M.D., professor of pediatrics and molecular medicine at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester. These two pediatric HIV experts led the analysis of the case. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), both components of the National Institutes of Health, provided funding that supported the work of Drs. Persaud and Luzuriaga and other investigators involved in the analysis of the case.

“Despite the fact that research has given us the tools to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV, many infants are unfortunately still born infected. With this case, it appears we may have not only a positive outcome for the particular child, but also a promising lead for additional research toward curing other children,” said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D.

In July 2010, the child was born prematurely in Mississippi at 35 weeks, to an HIV-infected mother who had received neither antiretroviral medication nor prenatal care.

Because of the high risk of exposure to HIV, the infant was started at 30 hours of age on liquid antiretroviral treatment consisting of a combination of three anti-HIV drugs: zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine. The newborn’s HIV infection was confirmed through two blood samples obtained on the second day of life and analyzed through highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. PCR tests conducted on separate occasions that indicate the presence of HIV in an exposed infant are considered to have confirmed the diagnosis of infection.

The baby was discharged from the hospital at 1 week of age and placed on liquid antiretroviral therapy consisting of combination zidovudine, lamivudine and co-formulated lopinavir-ritonavir. This drug combination is a standard regimen for treating HIV-infected infants in the United States.

Additional plasma viral load tests performed on blood from the baby over the first three weeks of life again indicated HIV infection. However, by Day 29, the infant’s viral load had fallen to less than 50 copies of HIV per milliliter of blood (copies/mL).

The baby remained on the prescribed antiretroviral treatment regimen until 18 months of age (January 2012), when treatment was discontinued for reasons that are unclear. However, when the child was again seen by medical professionals in the fall of 2012, blood samples revealed undetectable HIV levels (less than 20 copies/mL) and no HIV-specific antibodies. Using ultrasensitive viral RNA and DNA tests, the researchers found extremely low viral levels.

Today, the child continues to thrive without antiretroviral therapy and has no identifiable levels of HIV in the body using standard assays.  The child is under the medical care of Hannah Gay, M.D., a pediatric HIV specialist at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson. Researchers will continue to follow the case.

“This case suggests that providing antiretroviral therapy within the very first few days of life to infants infected with HIV through their mothers via pregnancy or delivery may prevent HIV from establishing a reservoir, or hiding place, in their bodies and, therefore, achieve a cure for those children,” said Dr. Persaud.

NIAID and NICHD provided funding that supported the collaborating investigators involved in the analysis of the HIV-infected child through the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Network’s (IMPAACT) cooperative agreement grant AI066832. Analysis was also performed by Tae-Wook Chun, Ph.D., a lead investigator in NIAID’s Laboratory of Immunoregulation in Bethesda, Md. The Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR) also contributed funding.

For more information about NIAID’s HIV/AIDS cure research, see the NIAID HIV/AIDS Web portal.

NAPWA Closes Its Doors

Today we received word that the National Association of People with AIDS will shut down. Here are some words from Paul Kawata, the executive director of NAPWA:

 

Remembering NAPWA
Ending the Epidemic by Paul Kawata

In the early days, death from HIV was quick and very ugly. It seems unbelievable, but there was a time when funeral directors would not cremate our dead, hospital staff would not bring food into the room, even some of our friends would turn their backs on us because they feared infection. It is a testament and the legacy of the LGBT community that we rolled up our sleeves and developed whole new infrastructures to respond to the epidemic. The continuum of care model was developed by us to take care of our friends.

There were heroes, amazing men, women and children who stood up to discrimination and fought back against the stigma and lies surrounding this disease. The HIV community owes a great debt to our straight allies and the lesbian community who stood with us when so many others looked the away. This epidemic was and is the test of a generation. Would you stand up and be counted or run away and hide?

The National Association of People with AIDS (NAPWA), the first national organization representing people living with AIDS has closed. We can point fingers or cast blame, but right now I want to remember the visionaries who started and built this important organization at such a critical time for our community. NAPWA’s first executive director was Stephen Beck, followed by Mike Meridian, Bill Freeman, Terri Anderson, Cornelius Baker and Frank Oldham. Ordinary Americans who stood up to be counted. I was lucky to be taken under the wings of so many early heroes. I learned to fight from Michael Hirsch, compassion from Bobby Campbell, running an organization from Richard Dunne, and to dream from my friend Paul. Many who survived this period have their own Michaels. That friend who gave them courage to do things they could never have imagined.

This is my story about Michael Hirsch. When I first came to Washington, I had no idea which way was up. Michael was the first person to take me under his wing. He was the quintessential New York Jewish gay activist who was the first executive director of the New York PWA Coalition and The Body Positive. Michael could drive me crazy, make me angrier than I thought possible, and laugh until I cried.

He would infuse during meetings. He wanted to remind the world that HIV was about real people with real problems. Because of Michael I was accepted into the PWA community. He insisted I attend early organizing meetings that would later become the National Association of People with AIDS.

Michael wrote long diatribes about life, the movement, his frustrations and joy. They were intimate letters between someone who was dying and someone who would remember. He closed each letter with “Yours in the struggle”.

When I got the call — if you did AIDS work in the 80s or early 90s, you know which call I mean — to come to the hospital for Michael while I was in Washington. I hopped on the shuttle to New York as quickly as I could and prayed to make it on time. The taxi ride from LaGuardia to Saint Vincent’s seemed to last forever. When I rushed into the hospital, Michael’s mother and sister were sobbing. My heart sank, was I too late? Just then Rona Affoumado, former executive director of the Callen-Lorde Health Center, found me and said, “Oh God, you made it. The family just decided to pull the plug.” …I wasn”t too late

Rona escorted me into Michael’s room. It was all pumps and whistles from the many machines keeping him alive. It had that unique smell, the smell of death. Michael was unconscious. The morphine stopped the pain so he could sleep. When they turned off the machines, there was an eerie silence. I held Michael’s hand and told him how much I loved him. Just then his eyes opened and a single tear rolled down his cheek and he was gone.

The nurse later said it was a reflex, to me it was a sign. It was Michael saying goodbye and to always remember. I close all of my emails with “Yours in the struggle” to honor his life and the lives of so many we’ve lost.

Michael’s story is the story of our movement. With NAPWA’s closing, we’ve lost a national voice for PLWHA just as we’ve found a pathway to end the epidemic. The dream of an AIDS-free generation cannot happen without leadership from people living with HIV or AIDS. All of us fighting to end this epidemic must work to carry on and fulfill NAPWA’s vision and ensure that people living with HIV or AIDS are front and center in the fight to end this epidemic. We must never lose sight of the fact that our fight is more than a battle against some abstract disease, but a struggle for our friends and lovers.

Goodbye NAPWA. I will remember your history, legacy and the leaders who made it possible.

Yours in the struggle,

Paul Kawata
Executive Director
National Minority AIDS Council

Countdown to Affordable Health Insurance

Cross posted from HealthCare blog.

 

Countdown to Affordable Health Insurance

 

By Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary of Health and Human Services

Posted January 16, 2013

January is the perfect month for looking forward to new and great things around the corner.

I’m feeling that way about the new Health Insurance Marketplace. Anticipation is building, and this month we start an important countdown, first to October 1, 2013, when open enrollment begins, and continuing on to January 1, 2014, the start of new health insurance coverage for millions of Americans. In October, many of you’ll be able to shop for health insurance that meets your needs at the new Marketplace at HealthCare.gov.

This is an historic time for those Americans who never had health insurance, who had to go without insurance after losing a job or becoming sick, or who had been turned down because of a pre-existing condition. Because of these new marketplaces established under the Affordable Care Act, millions of Americans will have new access to affordable health insurance coverage.

Over the last two years we’ve worked closely with states to begin building their health insurance marketplaces, also known as Exchanges, so that families and small-business owners will be able to get accurate information to make apples-to-apples comparisons of private insurance plans and, get financial help to make coverage more affordable if they’re eligible.

That is why we are so excited about launching the newly rebuilt HealthCare.gov website, where you’ll be able to buy insurance from qualified private health plans and check if you are eligible for financial assistance — all in one place, with a single application. Many individuals and families will be eligible for a new kind of tax credit to help lower their premium costs. If your state is running its own Marketplace, HealthCare.gov will make sure you get to the right place.

The Marketplace will offer much more than any health insurance website you’ve used before. Insurers will compete for your business on a level playing field, with no hidden costs or misleading fine print.

It’s not too soon to check out HealthCare.gov for new information about the Marketplace and tips for things you can do now to prepare for enrollment.  And, make sure to sign up for emails or text message updates, so you don’t miss a thing when it’s time to enroll.

There is still work to be done to make sure the insurance market works for families and small businesses. But, for millions of Americans, the time for having the affordable, quality health care coverage, security, and peace of mind they need and deserve is finally within sight.

Strategic Restructuring in the Affordable Care Act Era

The New Role of HIV Community-Based Organizations

 

This is a brief guide to understanding how HIV community-based organizations can take steps to best position themselves to continue and further their missions within the new context of HIV prevention and care service provision – largely shaped by the advent of the Affordable Care Act, the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and other important national policies.

The Affordable Care Act Era: A New Context for HIV Service Delivery

Over the last few years, a number of significant events have dramatically changed the field of HIV. These events include the signing of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010[i] and the release of the first ever National HIV/AIDS Strategy[ii] later that same year. Also of great significance were the results of a groundbreaking scientific study in 2011, HIV Prevention Trials Network 052 [iii], demonstrating that HIV treatment could not only improve health outcomes for people living with HIV, but that it could also prevent the transmission of HIV, thus ushering in a new paradigm of treatment as prevention.

When the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is implemented in 2014, Medicaid coverage will be expanded to non-disabled adults with incomes of up to 133% of the federal poverty level (FPL) in states that accept Medicaid expansion. Subsidies to purchase private insurance – via exchanges –will be provided for people with incomes between 100% and 400% of the FPL in all states.   Many people living with HIV who currently don’t have insurance, and who get their HIV medical care paid for through the Health Resources and Services Administration’s Ryan White Program, will be able to get insurance (both Medicaid and private) through the ACA.  By congressional charge, the Ryan White fund is the payer of last resort – which means that if a person has medical insurance that insurance must be used to pay for their HIV medical care. Therefore, as the ACA expands insurance coverage, many people living with HIV will move from the Ryan White program to Medicaid/State Private Exchange Insurance for payment of their HIV and other medical care. This will expand coverage for many HIV-infected patients as it will include services such as emergency care and non-HIV related medical care.

These events collectively have reshaped how we conceptualize and deliver HIV prevention and care services, compelling us to examine, among other things, the structure and role of HIV community-based organizations within this new system of service delivery.

Why Consider Restructuring?

“Strategic restructuring occurs when two or more independent organizations establish an ongoing relationship to increase the administrative efficiency and/or further the programmatic mission of one or more of the participating organizations through shared, transferred, or combined services, resources, or programs.”

-La Piana Consulting

La Piana Consulting, a leader in the field of nonprofit capacity building says that “strategic restructuring occurs when two or more independent organizations establish an ongoing relationship to increase the administrative efficiency and/or further the programmatic mission of one or more of the participating organizations through shared, transferred, or combined services, resources, or programs.”[iv]

As defined, strategic restructuring includes partnerships that are beyond collaborations, in that “they involve a change in the locus of control of at least a portion of one or more of the organizations involved.”[v] Typically nonprofits consider restructuring in order to better achieve their missions, strengthen their programming and/or to respond to a changing environment. Since the health care environment in general, and the HIV field in particular, are both rapidly changing as outlined above, it may be timely for HIV CBOs – especially those whose infrastructure and programming were developed within a different context – to assess the feasibility of restructuring, or, minimally, to explore collaborative opportunities.

Utilizing the HIV Treatment Cascade

One tool that can be used to assist CBOs with realignment or restructuring decisions is the HIV Treatment Cascade, a model popularized by Dr. Edward Gardner and colleagues in The Spectrum of Engagement in HIV Care and its Relevance to Test-and-Treat Strategies for Prevention of HIV Infection.[vi] The Treatment Cascade is a simple visual used to depict the estimated number of people living with HIV who know their status; who are linked to HIV care; who are retained in HIV care; who need treatment; who are receiving treatment and who are adherent to their treatment and ultimately have an undetectable viral load. Ideally, we would want everyone living with HIV to have an undetectable viral load, but, as the Treatment Cascade illustrates (see Figure 1), less than one in four HIV positive people are estimated to have an undetectable viral load.

figure1

Figure 1: The Stage of Engagement in HIV Care, aka, The HIV Treatment Cascade

The Treatment Cascade can be utilized to help direct the services of various CBOs when local data are applied. Let’s say for example that in a certain city or jurisdiction, the treatment cascade indicates that there is a major gap between people getting linked to care and retained in care; and that further research determines that a significant amount of people who are not engaged in care also have substance abuse disorders.  If a local agency is known for providing quality services for substance users, they may want to more actively promote those services and clearly demonstrate – via the Treatment Cascade – the importance of those services in ensuring that those who are linked to care become engaged in care and ultimately are more likely to have undetectable viral loads.

Next Steps & Resources

As we move forward with the implementation of the Affordable Care Act and strategies that operationalize treatment as prevention, inevitably the structures of HIV service provision will shift. A number of resources, some of which are listed below, can assist with preparing for these changes and ensuring that HIV CBOs remain relevant and fully capable of fulfilling their missions.

Resources: 

CDC Capacity Building Assistance: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/topics/cba/cba.htm

Ryan White Target Center: http://www.targethiv.org

Affordable Care Act: http://www.healthcare.gov

NHAS: http://whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/onap/nhas

La Piana Consulting: http://www.lapiana.org

MAP for Nonprofits: http://www.mapfornonprofits.org

NASTAD: http://www.nastad.org

Kaiser Family Foundation Video: Health Reform Hits Mains Street: http://healthreform.kff.org/the-animation.aspx?source=QL

An Examination of Strategic Nonprofit Restructuring:

A Guide to Restructuring Types, Organizational Assessment, Identification of Partners, Funding Sources and Implementation:

http://www.telluridefoundation.org/uploads/Grants/Radman_-_Strategic_Nonprofit_Restructuring.pdf

The Lodestar Foundation Nonprofit Collaboration Database: http://foundationcenter.org/gainknowledge/collaboration

HIV in the United States: Stages of Care: www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/…/Stages-of-CareFactSheet-508.pdf

Diagnosing Organizations: Methods, Models, and Processes; Harrison, M., 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



References

 

[i] Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: http://www.healthcare.gov

 

[iii] Cohen, MS, et al., “Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy,” N. Engl. J. Med. 365, 493-505 (2011).

[vi] The Spectrum of Engagement in HIV Care and its Relevance to Test-and-Treat Strategies for Prevention of HIV Infection. Edward M. Gardner, Margaret P. McLees, John F. Steiner, Carlos del Rio, and William J. Burman; Clin Infect Dis. (2011) 52 (6): 793-800.

 

Shared Action Highlights: AIDS.gov on Online Writing

Online writing can be a meaningful way to engage your community and population, so long as you approach it correctly. AIDS.gov recently posted ten tips for online writing that can help you author better web content. See an example here:

 

Keep it Brief. As mentioned above, even the most beautifully written and researched information may not get read because it’s too long. Lead with a summary or conclusions and hope they read the rest of the detail below.

 

Read the rest of these online tips at AIDS.gov’s blog here.